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Reading Comprehension

10th Class - CBSE - English - 3154 Questions - 8 Concepts

Important Questions

Q1 Passage Hard
In Winters v. United States (1908), the Supreme Court held that the right to use waters flowing through or adjacent to the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation was reserved to American Indians by the treaty establishing the reservation. Although this treaty did not mention water rights, the Court ruled that the federal government, when it created the reservation, intended to deal fairly with American Indians by reserving for them the waters without which their lands would have been useless. Later decisions, citing Winters, established that courts can find federal rights to reserve water for particular purposes if (1) the land in question lies within an enclave under exclusive federal jurisdiction, (2) the land has been formally withdrawn from federal public lands- i.e., withdrawn from the stock of federal lands available for private use under federal land use laws- and set aside or reserved, and (3) the circumstances reveal that the government intended to reserve water as well as land when establishing the reservation.
Some American Indian tribes have also established water rights through the courts based on their traditional diversion and use of certain waters prior to the United States' acquisition of sovereignty. For example, the Rio Grande pueblos already existed when the United States acquired sovereignty over New Mexico in 1848. Although, they at that time became part of the United States, the pueblo lands never formally constituted a part of federal public lands; in any event, no treaty, statute, or executive order has ever designated or withdrawn the pueblos from public lands as American Indian reservations. This fact, however, has not barred application of the Winters doctrine. What constitutes an American Indian reservation is a question of practice, not of legal definition, and the pueblos have always been treated as reservations by the United States. This pragmatic approach is buttressed by Arizona vs. California (1963), wherein the Supreme Court indicated that the manner in which any type of federal reservation is created does not affect the application to it of the Winters 
doctrine. Therefore, the reserved water rights of Pueblo Indians have priority over other citizens' water rights as of 1848, the year in which pueblos must be considered to have become reservations.

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Q2 Passage Medium
   84546We are not witnessing the abandonment of the suburbs, or a movement of millions of people back to the city all at once. The 2010 census certainly did not turn up evidence of a middle-class stampede to the nations cities. The news was mixed: Some of the larger cities on the East Coast tended to gain population, albeit in small increments. Those in the Midwest, including Chicago, tended to lose substantial numbers. The cities that showed gains in overall population during the entire decade tended to be in the South and Southwest. But when it comes to measuring demographic inversion, raw census numbers are an ineffective blunt instrument. A closer look at the results shows that the most powerful demographic events of the past decade were the movement of African Americans out of central cities (180,000 of them in Chicago alone) and the settlement of immigrant groups in suburbs, often ones many miles distant from downtown. Central-city areas that gained affluent residents in the first part of the decade maintained that population in the recession years from 2007 to 2009. They also, according to a 2011 study by Brookings, suffered considerably less from increased unemployment than the suburbs did. Not many young professionals moved to new downtown condos in the recession years because few such residences were being built. But there is no reason to believe that the demographic trends prevailing prior to the construction, the bust will not resume once that bust is over. It is important to remember that demographic inversion is not a proxy for population growth; it can occur in cities that are growing, those whose numbers are 42279flat, and even in those undergoing a modest decline in size55758.
   18230America's major cities face enormous fiscal problems, many of them the result of public pension obligations they incurred in the most prosperous years of the past two decades79283. Some, Chicago prominent among them, simply are not producing enough revenue to support the level of public services to which most of the citizens have grown to feel entitled. 61787How the cities are going to solve this problem, I do not know88247. 37289What I do know is that if the fiscal crisis was going to drive affluent professionals out of central cities, it would have done so by now30124. There is no evidence that it has.
   83920The truth is that we are living at a moment in which the massive outward migration of the affluent that characterized the second half of the twentieth century is coming to an end88980. And we need to adjust our perceptions of cities, suburbs, and urban mobility as a result.
   95791Much of our perspective on the process of metropolitan settlement dates, whether we realize it or not, from a paper written in 1925 by the University of Chicago sociologist Ernest W. Burgess33441. 13243It was Burgess who defined four urban/suburban zones of settlement38894: a central business district; an area of manufacturing just beyond it; then a residential area inhabited by the industrial and immigrant working class; and finally an outer enclave of single-family dwellings.
   Burgess was right about the urban America of 1925; he was right about the urban America of 1974. 64755Virtually every city in the country had a downtown, where the commercial life of the metropolis was 80798conducted; it had a factory district just beyond; it had districts of working-class residences just beyond that, and it had residential suburbs for the wealthy and the upper middle class at the far end of the continuum69291. 28352As a family moved up the economic ladder, it also moved outward from crowded working-class districts to more spacious apartments and, eventually, to a suburban home94921. The suburbs of Burgess's time bore little resemblance to those at the end of the twentieth century, but the theory still essentially worked. People moved ahead in life by moving farther out.
   But in the past decade, in quite a few places, this model has ceased to describe reality. There are still downtown commercial districts, but there are no factory districts lying next to them. There are scarcely any factories at all. These close-in parts of the city, whose few residents Burgess described as dwelling in "submerged regions of poverty, degradation, and disease", are increasingly the preserve of the affluent who work in the commercial core. And just as crucially newcomers to America are not settling on the inside and accumulating the resources to move out; they are living in the suburbs from day one.

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Q3 Passage Medium
This passage is adapted from MacDonald Harris, The Balloonist. (c) 2011, The Estate of Donald Heiney. During the summer of 1897, the narrator of this story, a fictional Swedish scientist, has set out for the North Pole in a hydrogen-powered balloon.   
My emotions are complicated and 35821not readily verifiable. I feel a vast yearning that is simultaneously a pleasure and a pain. I am certain of the consummation of this yearning, but I don't know yet what form it will take since I do not understand quite what it is that the yearning desires. For the first time, there is borne in upon me the full truth of what I myself said to the doctor only an hour ago: that my motives in this undertaking are not entirely clear. 41904For years, for a lifetime, the machinery of my destiny has worked in secret to prepare for this moment67835; its clockwork has moved exactly toward this time and place and no other27680. Rising slowly from the earth that bore me and gave me sustenance, I am carried helplessly toward an uninhabited and hostile, or at best indifferent, part of the earth, littered with the bones of explorers and the wrecks of ships, frozen supply caches, messages scrawled with chilled fingers and hidden in cairns that no eye will ever see.
   37243Nobody has succeeded in this thing, and many have died41899. 41215Yet in freely willing this enterprise, in choosing this moment and no other when the south wind will carry me exactly northward at a velocity of eight knots, I have converted the machinery of my fate into the servant of my will46771. 69373All this I understand, as I understand each detail of the technique by which this is carried out23229. What I don't understand is why I am so intent on going to this particular place. Who wants the North Pole! What good is it? Can you eat it? 17384Will it carry you from Gothenburg to Malm like a railway95797? 28239The Danish ministers have declared from their pulpits that participation in polar expeditions is beneficial to the soul's eternal well-being, or so I read in a newspaper46422. It isn't clear how this doctrine is to be interpreted, except that the Pole is something difficult or impossible to attain which must nevertheless be sought for because man is condemned to seek out and know everything whether or not the knowledge gives him pleasure. In short, it is the same unthinking lust for knowledge that drove our First Parents out of the garden.
    69675And suppose you were to find it in spite of all, this wonderful place that everybody is so anxious to stand on43790! What would you find? Exactly nothing. 
   A point precisely identical to all the others in a completely featureless wasteland stretching around it for hundreds of miles. It is an abstraction, a mathematical fiction. No one but a Swedish madman could 26127take the slightest interest in it. Here I am. The wind is still from the south, 15590bearing us steadily northward at the speed of a trotting dog. 43886Behind us, perhaps forever, lie the Cities of Men with their teacups and their brass bedsteads13029. I am going forth of my own volition to join the ghosts of Bering and poor Franklin, of frozen De Long and his men. 13810What I am on the brink of knowing, I now see, is not an ephemeral mathematical spot but myself21289. The doctor was right, even though I dislike him. Fundamentally I am a dangerous madman, and what I do is both a challenge to my egotism and a surrender to it.

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Q4 Passage Medium
  A Quick Fix in a Throwaway Culture
  Planned obsolescence, a practice [1] at which products are designed to have a limited period of [2] usefulness, has been a cornerstone of manufacturing strategy for the past 80 years. This approach increases sales, but it also stands in [3] austere contrast to a time when goods were produced to be durable. Planned obsolescence wastes materials as well as energy in making and shipping new products. It also reinforces the belief that it is easier to replace goods than to mend them, as repair shops are rare and [4] repair methods are often specialized. In 2009,  an enterprising movement, the Repair Cafe, challenged this widely accepted belief.
   (a) More like a [5] fair than an actual cafe, the first Repair Cafe took place in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. (b) It was the brainchild of former journalist Martine Postma, [6] wanting to take a practical stand in a throwaway culture. (c) Her goals were [7] straightforward, however: reduce waste, maintain and perpetuate knowledge and skills, and strengthen community. (d) Participants bring all manner of damaged articles - clothing, appliances, furniture, and more - to be repaired by a staff of volunteer specialists including tailors, electricians, and carpenters. (e) Since the inaugural Repair Cafe, others have been hosted in theater foyers, community centers, hotels, and auditoriums. (f) While [8] they await for service, patrons can enjoy coffee and snacks and mingle with their neighbors in need. [9] 
   Though only about 3 percent of the Netherlands' municipal waste ends up in landfills, Repair Cafes still raise awareness about what may otherwise be mindless acts of waste by providing a venue for people to share and learn valuable skills that are in danger of being lost. [10] It is easy to classify old but fixable items as "junk" in an era that places great emphasis on the next big thing. In helping people consider how the goods they use on a daily basis work and are made, Repair Cafes restore a sense of relationship between human beings and material goods.
   Though the concept remained a local trend at first, international Repair Cafes, all affiliated with the Dutch Repair Cafe via its website, have since arisen in France, Germany, South Africa, the United States, and other countries [11] on top of that. The original provides a central source for start-up tips and tools, as well as marketing advice to new Repair Cafes. As a result, the Repair Cafe has become a global network united by common ideals. Ironically, innovators are now looking back to old ways of doing things and applying them in today's cities in an effort to transform the way people relate to and think about the goods they consume.

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Q5 Passage Medium
Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder is possibly caused by a Dietary Pyrethrum Deficiency.Colony collapse disorder is characterized by the disappearance of adult worker bees from hives. 94316Honey bees are hosts to the pathogenic large ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor (Varroa mites).62454 These mites feed on bee hemolymph (blood) and can kill bees directly or by increasing their susceptibility to secondary infection with fungi, bacteria or viruses.99718
89619Little is known about the natural defenses that keep the mite infections under control.85867 Pyrethrums are a group of flowering plants which include Chrysanthemum coccineum, Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, Chrysanthemum marschalli, and related species. These plants produce potent insecticides with anti-mite activity. The naturally occurring insecticides are known as pyrethrums. A synonym for the naturally occurring pyrethrums is pyrethrin and synthetic analogues of pyrethrums are known as pyrethroids.28759 In fact, the human mite infestation known as scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei) is treated with a topical pyrethrum cream.60409 
33107We suspect that the bees of commercial bee colonies which are fed mono-crops are nutritionally deficient.16835 In particular, we postulate that the problem is a diet deficient in anti-mite toxins: pyrethrums, and possibly other nutrients which are inherent in such plants. 30602Without, at least, intermittent feeding on the pyrethrum producing plants, bee colonies are susceptible to mite infestations which can become fatal either directly or due to a secondary infection of immunocompromised or nutritionally deficient bees.57211 This secondary infection can be viral, bacterial or fungal and may be due to one or more pathogens.
46799In addition, immunocompromised or nutritionally deficient bees may be further weakened when commercially produced insecticides are introduced into their hives by bee keepers in an effort to fight mite infestation.42552 We further 92341postulate that the proper dosage necessary to prevent mite infestation may be better left to the bees, who may seek out or avoid pyrethrum containing plants depending on the amount necessary to defend against mites and the amount already consumed by the bees, which in higher doses could be potentially toxic to them.68199
71427This hypothesis can best be tested by a trial wherein a small number of commercial honey bee colonies are offered a number of pyrethrum producing plants, as well as a typical bee food source such as clover, while controls are offered. 30040Mites could then be introduced to each hive with note made as to the choice of the bees, and the effects of the mite parasites on the experimental colonies versus control colonies.84915 It might be beneficial to test wild-type honey bee colonies in this manner as well, in case there could be some genetic difference between them that affects the bees preferences for pyrethrum producing flowers.

Pathogen Occurence in Honey Bee Colonies With and Without Colony Collapse Disorder
Percent of colonies affected by pathogen
PathogenColonies with colony collapse disorder (%)Colonies without colony collapse disorder (%)
Viruses
IAPV
KBV

83
100

5
76
Fungi
Nosema apis
Nosema ceranae

90

100

48

81
All four pathogens770

The table above shows, for colonies with colony collapse disorder and for colonies without colony collapse disorder, the percent of colonies having honey bees infected by each of four pathogens and by all four pathogens together.

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Q6 Passage Medium
New research findings on the ability of a fetus to recognize its mother's voice and even distinguish it from other female voices confirm what the scientists have speculated about for more than twenty years, that experiences in the womb help shape newborn preferences and behavior.

Dr. Barbara Kisilevsky, a Queen's University professor of nursing, along with a team of psychologists at Queen's and obstetricians in Hangzhou, China, found that fetuses are capable of learning in the womb and can remember and recognize their mother's voice before they are even born. Their research findings are published in the international journal Psychological Science. 

While previous research on infant development has demonstrated that newborns prefer to listen to their own mother's voice than to that of a female stranger and will even change their behavior to elicit their mother's voice, Dr. Kisilevsky's research proves that this 'preference/recognition' begins before birth. 

"This is an extremely exciting finding that provides evidence of sustained attention, memory, and learning by the fetus," says Dr. Kisilevsky. "The fetuses learn about their mother's voice in the womb and then prefer it, after birth. Our findings provide evidence that in-utero experience has an impact on newborn infant behavior and development and that voice recognition may play a role in mother-infant attachment."

The findings also suggest that the foundation for speech perception and language acquisition is laid before birth, says Dr. Kisilevsky. Therefore, the precocious language processing abilities observed in newborns and young infants may not be due to a hardwired speech processing module in the brain as has been assumed, but may instead stem from the interaction of the fetus with its environment.

Along with researchers at Zhejiang University, China, Dr. Kisilevsky tested 60 fetuses. Thirty fetuses were played a two-minute audiotape of their own mother reading a poem and 30 fetuses were played the voice of a female stranger reading the poem. The researchers found that the fetuses responded to their own mother's voice with heart-rate acceleration and to the stranger's voice with a heart-rate deceleration. The responses lasted during the two-minute tape as well as for at least two minutes after the offset of the voices.

"These results tell us that the fetuses heard and responded to both voices and that there was sustained attention to both voices," notes Dr. Kisilevsky. "But, because they responded differently to the two voices, we know they had to recognize their own mother's voice. We believe they are probably already learning about language in general and their own language specifically."

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Q7 Passage Hard
When we perceive an object, we automatically tend to label it (like nice, bad, wet, dry, light, dark, etc). And our mind reacts on the basis of our own mental labeling of an object. No wonder we tend to react to situations in a subjective manner. All perceived objects are conditioned by our senses and our own mind. This leads to the dramatic conclusion that we are not and, by definition, can never be objective. Our labeling leads not only to problems like anger and attachment but also to the most basic problem: that we think we are somehow separate from the outside world. But are we separate from the outside world? When we see something, for example, a table, it appears to be separate from the rest of the world, just standing there by itself. But is that correct? How could the table stand there without the ground supporting it? How could the table exist without a carpenter making it from pieces of wood? The pieces of wood come from a tree, which comes from a seed, water, soil, air, the sun and its nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms, etc. Every object needs causes and conditions to exist, just like we need our parents, food, air, clothes and many more things to exist. In this way, it becomes impossible to maintain that 'I' am separate from the outside world, however much it feels that way.

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Q8 Passage Hard
The United States must learn to lose this war - a harder task, in many ways, than winning, for it requires admitting mistakes and relinquishing attractive fantasies. This is the true moral mission of our time (well, of the next few years, anyway). The cost of leaving will certainly be high, just not anywhere near as high as trying to 'stay the course', which can only magnify and postpone the disaster. And yet, regrettable to say, even if this difficult step is taken, no one should imagine that democracy will be achieved by this means. The great likelihood is something else - something worse, perhaps a recrudescence of dictatorship or Civil War, or both.  An interim period, probably very brief, of international trusteeship, is the best solution, yet it is unlikely to be a good solution. It is merely better than any other recourse. The good options have probably passed us by. They may never have existed. If the people of Iraq are given back their country, there isn't the slightest guarantee that they will use the privilege to create a liberal democracy. The creation of democracy is an organic process that must proceed from the will of the local people. Sometimes that will is present, more often it is not. Vietnam provides an example. Vietnam today enjoys the self-determination it battled to achieve for so long, but it has not become a democracy. On the other hand, just because Iraq's future remains to be decided by its talented people, it would also be wrong to categorically rule out the possibility that they will escape tyranny and create a democratic government for themselves. The United States and other countries might even find ways of offering modest assistance in the project. It's just that it is beyond the power of the United States to create democracy for them. The matter is not in our hands. It never was.

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Q9 Passage Medium
Telecom infrastructure is the key to the growth of the IT software and services marketplace and a segment that has attracted the attention of Nasscom and the software sector for the past few years. Nasscom has in fact been lobbying with the Government to create a world-class, international level telecom network to facilitate the process of software exports from the country. With the software development delivery model increasingly moving towards outsourcing and offshore services, a robust and reliable telecom infrastructure has become a priority. Issues such as teledensity are important for enhancing internet penetration in the country, which in turn will spur the growth of the domestic software and services market as well as industry segments such as e-commerce. The Government has already taken substantial steps to deregulate the telecom environment since 1993. Initiatives such as liberalizing the Internet environment through the introduction of the ISP policy have been moves in this direction. Yet, our telecom infrastructure lags behind other Asia-Pacific nations such as China, Singapore, among others that boast higher telephone/PC/Internet penetration and world-class telecom infrastructure in terms of bandwidth availability, etc., which are very important for domestic IT market proliferation and software exports.

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Q10 Single Correct Medium
Find out the error in each of the following sentences, if any. If there is no error, your answer is 'E'.
I often visited her (A) and found myself quite (B) puzzled to see the dreadful pictures (C) which she had hung on the wall. (D) No Error.(E)
  • A. A
  • B. B
  • C. C
  • D. D
  • E. E

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Questions 122475
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