Three Crop Seasons of India Study Notes for Competitive Exams

India is a major producer of many crops, which are divided into four broad categories, namely food grains (rice, wheat, maize, millets and pulses), cash crops (cotton, jute, sugarcane, tobacco and oilseeds), plantation crops (tea, coffee, coconut and rubber) and horticulture crops (fruits and vegetables).

Based on seasons, crops in India are divided into 3 seasons, namely Rabi, Kharif and Zaid seasons.

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Kharif season

  1. Kharif crop is the summer or monsoon crop season in India.
  2. Kharif crop seeds are generally sown in the beginning of the month of July with the advent of the first rains, in the south-west monsoon season.
  3. Major Kharif crops in India are millets (jowar and bajra), cotton, soybeans, sugarcane, turmeric, paddy (rice), maize, moong dal (pulse), groundnuts, red chilies etc.

Rabi season

  1. Winter or spring crop season is known as Rabi.
  2. Seeds are sown in October and the crops are harvested in March-April each year.
  3. Wheat, barley, mustard, sesame and peas etc are major Rabi crops in India.

Zaid season

  1. Zaid crops are grown in certain regions of India during the months of March to June.
  2. Prime examples of such crops are muskmelon, watermelon, vegetables of cucurbitacae family like bitter gourd, pumpkin etc.


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