Civics

Which of the following are included in the concept of 'the State' under Article $$12$$ of Constitution of India?


ANSWER

All of the above


SOLUTION
Article 12 defines the term state. The first part of it is self-explanatory which expressly tells the institutions that are to be considered as a state while the other part, “other authorities” is deduction. The Apex court has ruled in various cases the nature of other authorities and a list of institutions has been formed by these ruling which comes under the definition of State. It includes railways, Judiciary and University under its definition. The judiciary, however, is not exclusively a state, it is only when the courts exercise the administrative power, their actions can be challenged and brought under the ambit of the state. 
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